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Appendicular Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones)

Pectoral girdle (4)

  • Scapula (2) is commonly called the shoulder blade. It is supported and positioned by the skeletal muscles. The scapula has no bony or ligamentous bonds to the thoracic cage, but it is extremely important for muscle attachment.
  • Clavicle (2) is commonly called the collarbone. It articulates with the manubrium of the sternum, and is the only direct connection between the pectoral girdle and the axial skeleton.

Upper Limbs (60)

  • Humerus (2) extends from the scapula to the elbow.
  • Radius (2) lies along the lateral side (or thumb side) of the forearm.
  • Ulna (2) forms the medial support of the forearm.
  • Carpals (16)consist of 8 pairs of bones of the wrist and, composed of:
    • four proximal bones (scaphoid, lunate, triangular or triquetral, and pisiform);
    • four distal bones (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate).
  • Metacarpals (10) consist of 5 pairs of bones that articulate with the distal carpal bones forming the palm of the hand.
  • Phalanges (28) consist of 14 pairs of finger bones. Four fingers contain three phalanges while the pollex (thumb) has only two.

Pelvic girdle (2) articulates with the femur.

  • Os coxae (2) is commonly called the hip bone. It is formed from a fusion of three bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis).

Lower Limbs (60)

  • Femur (2) is commonly called the thigh bone. It is the longest, strongest, and heaviest bone in the body. Distally, it articulates with the tibia at the knee joint. The head (epiphysis) articulates with the pelvis at the acetabulum.
  • Tibia (2) is commonly called the shinbone. It is the large medial bone of the leg, attached to the patella by a ligament.
  • Fibula (2) parallels the lateral border of the tibia.
  • Patella (2) is the knee cap.
  • Tarsals (14) consist of 7 pairs of bones (talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, and the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cuneiform bones). Only the talus articulates with the tibia and fibula.
  • Metatarsals (10) support the sole of the foot and numbers I to V from medial to lateral with the distal ends forming the ball of the foot.
  • Phalanges (28) have the same arrangement as with the fingers and thumb only with the toes and great toe (hallux)

Irregular bones are those of the vertebrae and face.

Updated October 2012