Hormones involved in bone growth (hormone – gland – function)
- Growth hormone – anterior pituitary gland – increases the rate of mitosis of chondrocytes and osteoblasts, and increases the rate of protein synthesis (collagen, cartilage matrix, and enzymes for cartilage and bone formation)
- Thyroxine – thyroid gland – increases the rate of protein synthesis and increases energy production from all food types
- Insulin – pancreas – increases energy production from glucose
- Parathyroid hormone – parathyroid glands – increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood, thereby raising blood calcium levels and increases the absorption of calcium by the small intestine and kidneys
- Calcitonin – thyroid gland – decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones thereby lowering blood calcium levels
- Estrogen or Testosterone – ovaries or testes (respectively) – promotes closure of epiphyses of long bones, thereby stopping growth, and helps retain calcium in bones, thereby maintaining a strong bone matrix.