Home Health Anatomy Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effects

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effects

Effects on various systems and organs:

  • Eye:
    • dilation of pupil; focusing for distance vision
    • constriction of pupil; focusing for near vision
  • Skin:
    • Sweat glands:
      • (S) – increases secretion
      • (P) – none (not innervated)
    • Arrector pili muscles:
      • (S) – contraction and erection of hairs
      • (P) – none (not innervated)
  • Tear Glands:
    • (S) – none (not innervated)
    • (P) – secretion
  • Cardiovascular System:
    • Blood Vessels:
      • (S) – vasoconstriction and vasodilation
      • (P) – none (not innervated)
    • Heart:
      • (S) – increases heart rate, force of contraction, and blood pressure
      • (P) – decreases heart rate, force of contraction, and blood pressure
  • Adrenal Glands:
    • (S) – secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine by adrenal medullae
    • (P) – none (not innervated)
  • Respiratory System:
    • Airways:
      • (S) – increases diameter
      • (P) – decreases diameter
    • Respiratory rate:
      • (S) – increases rate
      • (P) – decreases rate
  • Digestive System:
    • General level of activity:
      • (S) – decreases activity
      • (P) – increases activity
    • Liver:
      • (S) – glycogen breakdown and glucose synthesis and release
      • (P) – glycogen synthesis
  • Skeletal Muscles:
    • (S) – increases force of contraction and glycogen breakdown
    • (P) – none (not innervated)
  • Urinary System:
    • Kidneys:
      • (S) – decreases urine production
      • (P) – increases urine production
    • Urinary bladder:
      • (S) – constricts sphincter and relaxes urinary bladder
      • (P) – tenses urinary bladder and relaxes sphincter to eliminate urine
  • Reproductive System:
    • (S) – increases glandular secretions and ejaculation in males
    • (P) – erection of penis in males and clitoris in females